Electronic Voting Page
     ELECTRONIC VOTING PAPERS   E-voting books

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This site is being maintained by Anne-Marie Oostveen who works at the the Oxford Internet Institute (a department within the Social Sciences Division of the University of Oxford)

This website does not reflect an opinion either against or in favour of electronic voting. It tries to give an objective overview of the relevant literature available on the topic. If you are interested in my personal opinion, you are advised to read the papers I have written about (remote) electronic voting. Some of these papers can be found on this page or otherwise on the page with my list of academic publications.

UPDATE - 2006

I no longer work on an e-voting project and therefore I don't update this particular page anymore with new electronic voting references.

Moreover, since the start of my research in 2002, e-voting has become a real hot topic and it would be difficult to keep up with all the related papers and articles. If you are interested in electronic voting in the Netherlands (and you are able to read Dutch), surf to http://www.wijvertrouwenstemcomputersniet.nl/Media-overzicht


Electronic Voting Bibliography

Alvarez, M. and T. Hall (2004) Point, Click & Vote. The Future of Internet Voting. Washington: Brookings Institution Press.

Alvarez, M and J. Nagler (2000) The Likely Consequences of Internet Voting for Political Representation. The Internet Voting and Democracy Symposium. Loyola Law School, October 26, 2000, Los Angeles, California

Arent, L. (1999) Netting Out the Vote, Wired News

Arent, L. (1999) Vote in Your Underwear, Wired News

Batista, E. (2000) No E-Voting for California. Yet., Wired News

Berkofsky, J. (2001) Can the Swedes Swing the Net Vote? TechTV News April 11, 2001

Blumler, J.G. and S. Coleman (2001) Realising Democracy Online: A Civic Commons in Cyberspace. Institute for Public Policy Research and Citizens Online, published March 2001.

Bonsor, K. (2000) How E-Voting Will Work HowStuffWorks.

Brewer, W. (2002) Electronic voting is great so where is it? Monday, 21 January 2002, PC Advisor.

Burke, L. (2000) No Voting Opportunity for All, Wired News

Burke, L. (2000) Arizona Vote One for the Ages, Wired News

Burke, L. (2000) Vote Early, Try Often in Arizona, Wired News

Burton, A.M. (2000) Does the revolution begin here? How the Internet may (or may not) change political communication. School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University. Ottawa, Canada.

California Internet Voting Task (2000) California Internet Voting Task Force. A Report on the Feasibility of Internet Voting. Final Report, January 2000.

Caltech-MIT Voting Technology Project (2001) Voting - What Is, What Could Be? July 2001 Report of the Caltech-MIT Voting Technology Project.

Chaum, D. (2004) Secret-Ballot Receipts: True Voter-Verifiable Elections. IEEE Security and Privacy, January/February 2004.

Communications of the ACM. Special Issue on Voting systems. Volume 47 , Issue 10 (October 2004) ISSN:0001-0782. New York: Publisher ACM Press.

Coleman, S. et al. (2002) Elections in the 21st century: from paper ballot to e-voting. Report by The Independent commission on Alternative Voting Methods. London: Electoral Reform Society.

Collier, J., Collier, K. (1992) VoteScam: The Stealing of America. Victoria House Press.

Cowling, D. (2002) Analysis: Does e-voting work? BBC News. Wednesday, 17 July, 2002.

Crabtree, J. (2001) Whatever Happened to the E-Lection (iSociety) A survey of voter attitudes towards new technology during the 2001 election, June 2001.

Craft, P. (2000) Observations from the Election Administrative Perspective on: Internet Voting: Spurring or Corrupting Democracy? A debate held at the 10th Conference on Computers, Freedom & Privacy. April 7, 2000. Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Crane, R., A. Keller, A. Dechert, E. Cherlin, and D.Mertz (2005) "A Deeper Look: Rebutting Shamos on e-Voting," submitted for publication.

Cranor, L. (1996) Electronic Voting. Computerized polls may save money, protect privacy. ACM Crossroads Student Magazine.

Dahl, R. (1998) On Democracy. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Dahlberg, L. (2001) Democracy via Cyberspace. Mapping the rhetorics and practices of three prominent camps. New Media & Society Vol 3 (2): 157-177. London: SAGE Publications

Daniels, P. (2000) Electronic Voting and Counting Pilot Scheme, 4th May, 2000. Evaluation Report. City of Salford. August, 2000

Dictson, D. and D. Ray (2000) The Modern Democratic Revolution: An Objective Survey of Internet-Based Elections. SecurePoll.com, White Paper Januari 2000.

Done, R. S. (2002) Internet Voting: Bringing Elections to the Desktop, Research Report, PricewaterhouseCoopers Endowment for the Business of Government, 2002.

Electoral Commission (2003) The shape of elections to come: A strategic evaluation of the 2003 electoral pilot schemes. The Electoral Commission's overarching strategic report on the 2003 electoral pilot schemes in England.

e-Gov Monitor (2003) Does the UK need e-voting?

Fisher, B., M. Margolis, D. Resnick (1994) A New Way of Talking Politics: Democracy on the Internet. Report presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association in New York City, September 1-4, 1994.

Fletcher, T. (2001) Voting reform too slow for disabled. Voxpolitics 5/16/2001

Gerck, E. (2001) Voting System Requirements. Presentation at WOTE 2001.

Griffiths, M. (2002) Australian eDemocracy? The potential for citizens and governments. Presentation at Innovative e-Government for Victoria, Melbourne, 26 March, 2002.

Grondlund, A. (2001) Democracy in an IT-Framed Society. Communications of the ACM. January 2001/Vol.44, No.1. Pp 22-26.

Hacker, K. and Van Dijk, J. (2000) Digital Democracy. Issues of theory and practice. London: SAGE Publications.

Hague, B.N. and B.D. Loader (1999) Digital Democracy. Discourse and Decision Making in the Information Age. London: Routledge.

Hargrove, T. (2004) Widespread voting woes foil democratic process. Old equipment, faulty accounting methods fail to tabulate many votes. The Detroit News.

Harris, B. (2003) Black Box Voting: Vote Tampering in the 21st Century. Elon House/Plan Nine, July 2003.

Henn, M. and M. Weinstein (2001) Youth and Voting Behaviour in Britain. Paper prepared for delivery at the 2001 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco, August 30-September 2, 2001.

Hoffman, L. and Cranor, L. (2001) Internet Voting for Public Officials: Introduction, Communications of the ACM, 44, 1 (January 2001), pp. 69-71.

Hout, M, Mangles, L, Carlson, J. and Best, R. (2004) The Effect of Electronic Voting Machines on Change in Support for Bush in the 2004 Florida Elections.

Internet Policy Institute (2001) Report of the National Workshop on Internet Voting: Issues and Research Agenda. March 2001.

Jones, D. W. (2000) E-Voting Prospects and Problems. Talk presented at Tau Beta Pis 31st Annual Paul D. Scholz Symposium. University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa. April 13, 2000.

Jones, D. W. (2000) Thoughts on Computers in Voting. Comp.risks Volume21: Issue 10

Kantor, J. (1999) Obstacles to E-Voting , Slate archives

Keller, A.,  D. Mertz, J. Lorenzo Hall, and A. Urken, "Privacy Issues in an Electronic Voting Machine," in Privacy and Identity: The Promise and Perils of a Technological Age. Katherine J. Strandburg and Daniela Raicu, eds., Kluwer Academic Publishing, to appear.

King Roth, S. (1998) Disenfranchised by Design: Voting Systems and the Election Process. Information Design Journal, Vol.9 No. 1, 1998.

Kitcat, J. (2003) FIPR Foundation for Information Policy Research. New campaign calls for safe e-voting.

Kitcat, J. (2002) TURNING ROUND TURNOUT. Turnout - the reasons why it's falling and the potential solutions.

Kitcat, J. (2000) Direct Democracy: A valid future?

Kitcat, J. (2000) "I voted for Big Brother, but I didn't vote the Prime Minister in." Political Apathy, Voting Systems and the future of Democracy.

Konrad, R. (2003) E-voting critics point to security hole. California primary results appeared online before polls closed. Associated Press MSNBC News.

Korac-Kakabadse, A., N. Korac-Kakabadse and A. Kouzmin (2001) Re-Inventing the Democratic Governance Project Through Information Technology?: A Growing Agenda for Debate. The First IFIP Conference on E-Commerce, E-Business and E-Government, 4-5 October 2001.

Krimmer, R. (2006): Electronic Voting 2006. Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Electronic Voting P-86, LNI GI Series, Bonn.

Landes, L. (2002) Elections in America Assume Crooks Are In Control.

Law, G. (2002) Britain back on e-voting track. UK city council begins smartcard e-government plan. PC Advisor Thursday, 25 April 2002.

LCCR and the Brennan Center (2004) Recommendations of the Brennan Center for Justice and the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights for Improving Reliability of Direct Recording Electronic Voting Systems.

Levy, S. (1994) Prophet of Privacy. Wired Magazine.

Levy, S. (2004) Ballot Boxes Go High Tech. MSNBC Newsweek.

Lifson, F. (2000) The Security of Electronic Online Voting

Local Government Association (2002) Implementation of electronic voting in the UK. A research jointly commissioned by the DTLR, Office of the e-Envoy, Electoral Commission, LGA, IDeA and Solace and undertaken by De Montfort University.

Manjoo, F. (2003) Hacking democracy?

Manjoo, F. (2003) Another case of electronic vote-tampering?

Manjoo, F. (2003) An open invitation to election fraud.

Manjoo, F. (2002) Voting into the void New touch-screen voting machines may look spiffy, but some experts say they can't be trusted. Salon.com, 5 November 2002.

Manjoo, F. (2001) Net Voting? Keep Your Pants On. Feb. 7, 2001. Wired News.

Manjoo, F. (2000) The Case for Electronic Voting. Nov. 14, 2000. Wired News.

Mann, I. (1993) Open Voting Systems, CFP93

Manthorpe, L. (2002) Electronic Voting in the 2001 ACT Election. Research Note No. 46, Department of the Parliamentary Library, Parliament of Australia, 18 June 2002.

McCollough, B.D. and F. Plassmann (2004) "A Partial Critique of Hout, Mangels, Carlson and Best's 'The Effect of Electronic Voting Machines on Change in Support for Bush in the 2004 Florida Elections' " National Research Commission on Elections and Voting, A Social Science Research Council Project.

McGaley, M., Gibson, J.P. (2003) Electronic Voting: A Safety Critical System.

Mercuri, R. (2001) Dr. Rebecca Mercuris Statement on Electronic Voting.

Mercuri, R. (1993) The Business of Elections, CFP93

Millar, S. (2002) Don't trust computers with e-votes, warns expert. The Guardian, Thursday October 17, 2002.

Mitroud, L. Gritzalis, S. Katsikas (2002) Revisiting legal and regulatory requirements for secure e-voting. Proc. of the 16th IFIP International Information Security Conference (IFIP/SEC-2002) M. el Hadidi, et al. (Eds.), Egypt, 6-8 May 2002. Kluwer Academics Publishers.

Mohen, J. and J. Glidden (2001) The case for internet voting. Communications of the ACM, 44, 1 (January 2001), pp. 72-85.

O'Donnell, P. (2004) Broken Machine Politics. Wired Magazine, January 2004.

Oostveen, A., Van den Besselaar (2006) Non-Technical Risks of Remote Electronic Voting. In: Ari-Veikko Anttiroiko and Mattia Malkia (eds.), The Encyclopedia of Digital Government. Idea Group Inc. pp 502-507.

Oostveen, A., Van den Besselaar  (2005) The Effects of Voting Technologies on Voting Behaviour: Issues of Trust and Social Identity. In: Social Science Computer Review, Vol.23 No. 3, Fall 2005, p304-311, Sage Publications

Oostveen, A., Van den Besselaar (2004) E-democracy, Trust and Social Identity: Experiments with E-voting technologies.

Oostveen, A. and P.van den Besselaar (2004) Security as Belief. Users Perceptions on the Security of Electronic Voting Systems. In: Electronic Voting in Europe: Technology, Law, Politics and Society. Edited by A. Prosser and R. Krimmer. Lecture Notes in Informatics. Volume P-47, p73-82. Bonn: Gesellschaft fr Informatik. ISBN 3-88579-376-8

Oostveen, A.  and P. van den Besselaar (2004) Ask No Questions and Be Told No Lies. Security of computer-based voting systems: trust and perceptions . In U.E. Gattiker (Ed.), EICAR 2004 Conference CD-Rom. Copenhagen: EICAR e.V. ISBN 87-987271-6-8.

Oostveen, A.  and P. van den Besselaar (2004) Internet voting technologies and civic participation, the users perspectiveJavnost / The Public Vol. XI [2004], No.1, p61-78. ISSN 1318 - 3222.

Phillips, D. and H. von Spakovsky (2001) Gauging the risks of internet elections. Communications of the ACM, 44, 1 (January 2001), pp. 73-85.

Pilon, D. (2002) Renewing Canadian Democracy: Citizen Engagement in Voting System Reform. Phase One: Lessons from Around the World, Law Commission of Canada/Fair Vote Canada, March 2002.

Pratchett, L. and M. Wingfield (2004) 'Electronic voting in the United Kingdom. Lessons and limitations from the UK Experience' in N. Kersting and H. Baldersheim (eds) Electronic Voting and Democracy. A Comparative Analysis Palgrave.

Prosser A. and R. Krimmer (Eds.) (2004). Electronic Voting in Europe: Technology, Law, Politics and Society. Lecture Notes in Informatics. Volume P-47, p73-82. Bonn: Gesellschaft fr Informatik. ISBN 3-88579-376-8

Prosser, I. (2000) Pilot on Electronic Voting and Counting. Evaluation Report. Stratford-on-Avon District Council, 4th May 2000.

Quesenbery, W. (2003) Starting from People: Usability and User-Centered Design in Voting Systems. NIST Symposium on Building Trust and Confidence in Voting Systems.

Quesenbery, W. (2001) What Don't We Know About Internet Voting and Usability. Presentation at the Georgia Tech Research Institute workshop on Internet voting. November 13-14, 2001.

Quesenbery, W. (2001) Voting for Usability: Background on the Issues. Presentation at the Spotlight Session, TECH*COMM 2001, July 16, 2001 in Washington DC.

Rohde, L. (2001) E-minister pushes govt rethink on online voting Friday, 26 October 2001, PC Advisor.

Rubin, A. (2000) Security Considerations for Remote Electronic Voting over the Internet.

Sequoia Voting Systems (2003) Sequoia Discusses Safeguards of Electronic Voting.

Simons, B and E. Spafford (2001) Letter to House Science Committee - Electronic Voting May 29, 2001 Washington, D.C.

Schwartz, E. (1993) Direct Democracy. Are you ready for the Democracy Channel? WIRED Online.

Shamos, M.I. (2004) Paper v. Electronic Voting Records: An Assessment.

Shamos, M. I. (1993) Electronic Voting - Evaluating the Threat, CFP93

Smith, V. (2002) Computerized Balloting is Taking Over Elections In Maryland--But Can We Trust the Results? Baltimore Citypaper Online, December 11 - December 17, 2002.

Snellen, I. (2001) ICTs and the Future of Democracy. International Journal of Communications Law and Policy. Published March 8, 2001.

Thompson, B. (2002) Why e-voting is a bad idea. BBC News. Friday, 19 July, 2002

Tolbert, C. and R. McNeal (2001) Does the Internet Increase Voter Participation in Elections Paper prepared for delivery at the 2001 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco, August 30-September 2, 2001

Traugott, M. (2000) Why electoral reform has failed. If You Build It, Will They Come? Paper prepared for the conference, "Political Participation: Building a Research Agenda," Princeton University, October 12-14, 2000.

Trechsel, A., Kies, R., Mendez, F. and P. Schmitter (2004) Evaluation of the use of new technologies in order to facilitate democracy in Europe. E-democratizing the parliaments and parties of Europe. STOA study on behalf of the European Parliament.

Ullman, E. (2000) Twilight of the crypto-geeks.

Van den Besselaar, P. and A. Oostveen (2004), Media effects in voting and polling: e-democracy, trust and social identity. Paper for the 2004 ICA Conference 'Communication in the Public Interest', New Orleans.

Van den Besselaar, P. and A. Oostveen (2003), E-voting is not neutral! In Lecture Notes in Informatics P35 (2003) pp 218-221.

Van den Besselaar, P., Oostveen, A. , De Cindio, F. and Davide Ferrazzi, Experiments with e-voting: experiences and lessons. In: Paul Cunningham, Miriam Cunningham, Peter Fatelnig (eds), Building the Knowledge Economy - Issues, Applications and Case Studies. Amsterdam: IOS-press, 2003. pp 719-727.

Watt, B. (2002) Implementing electronic voting in the UK: The legal issues.

Ward, M. (2001) No votes for net elections BBC News Online, Wednesday, 28 March, 2001, 14:02 GMT.

Waskell, E. (1993) Overview of Computers and Elections, CFP93

Wasserman, E. (1999) The Rules of Engagement, Slate archives

Wasserman, E. (1999) Women Get the Online Vote, Slate archives

Watson, R. and B. Mundy (2001) A Strategic Perspective of Electronic Democracy. Communications of the ACM. January 2001/Vol.44, No.1. Pp 27-30.

Weinstein, L. (2000) People For Internet Responsibility (PFIR) Statement on Internet Voting February 26, 2000

Weinstein, L. (2000) Inside risks: Risks of Internet voting. Communications of the ACM June 2000 Volume 43 Issue 6.

Weisberg, J. (1999) Will Internet voting be good news for American democracy? CNN.com. October 28, 1999.

Zetter, K. (2003) Aussies Do It Right: E-Voting. Wired News.

Zetter, K. (2003) E-Vote Firms Seek Voter Approval. Wired News.



Electronic Voting in Europe - Technology, Law, Politics and Society

Alexander Prosser, Robert Krimmer (Eds.)

Black Box Voting: Ballot-tampering in the 21st Century

Bev Harris

Point, Click and Vote: The Future of Internet Voting  

Michael Alvarez, Thad Hall

The European Union and E-Voting (Electronic Voting)  

A. Trechsel, F. Mendez


Electronic Voting and Democracy: A Comparative Analysis

Norbert Kersting, Harald Baldersheim

Secure Electronic Voting

Dimitris Gritzalis

Invisible Ballots: A Temptation for Electronic Vote Fraud

 William Gazecki, Bev Harris


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